This is a general term which embraces all those subjects which are concerned with the dynamics of liquids (or hydrodynamics). In particular, it is especially applied to the study of practical engineering problems. As a result, although this general definition is perfectly valid, many aspects of hydraulic engineering are specifically related to the study of water flows.
In the broadest sense, hydraulics may be subdivided into two areas. The first is concerned with the hydrodynamics of liquids apart from their motions (i.e., the properties of fluids at rest), and is accordingly referred to as Hydrostatics. This includes the study of buoyancy and floatation, the calculation of forces on submerged bodies, and the measurement of pressures using manometers. Practical applications of these subject areas include the design of gates and barriers, the determination of pressures on dams and submerged containers, and the operation of hydraulic presses.
The second subdivision concerns the description of moving or flowing liquids, The terms hydrokinematics is sometimes used to define this area. This sub-division includes flows which may be steady or unsteady, uniform or varied, laminar or turbulent, and with or without friction losses. Practical problems within this area include Open Channel Flows, pipe flows, estuarine dynamics, coastal hydraulics, wave mechanics, hydraulic structures, sediment transport, fluid loading, and hydraulic machinery including both turbines aid pumps. For specific information concerning these areas the reader is directed to the following references.
REFERENCES
Abbott, M. B. and Price, W. A. (1994) Coastal, Estuarial and Harbour Engineers Reference Book, Chapman and Hall, London. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3839(94)90034-5
Brater, E. F. and King, H. W. (1976) Handbook of Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.
Francis, P. and Minton, J. D. R. (1984) Civil Engineering Hydraulics, Arnold, London.
Rouse, H. (1949) Engineering Hydraulics, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Vennard, J. K. and Street, R. L. (1976) Elementary Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Zippario, V. J. and Hasen, H. (1993) Davis' Handbook of Applied Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.
参考文献
- Abbott, M. B. and Price, W. A. (1994) Coastal, Estuarial and Harbour Engineers Reference Book, Chapman and Hall, London. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3839(94)90034-5
- Brater, E. F. and King, H. W. (1976) Handbook of Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.
- Francis, P. and Minton, J. D. R. (1984) Civil Engineering Hydraulics, Arnold, London.
- Rouse, H. (1949) Engineering Hydraulics, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
- Vennard, J. K. and Street, R. L. (1976) Elementary Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
- Zippario, V. J. and Hasen, H. (1993) Davis' Handbook of Applied Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York.